Article by Kaushiki Das of Karimganj college
About 40 years ago, Louis brown was the first person to created using in-vitro fertilization, in a Petri dish.
Not long after birth Leon Kass, a prominent biologist and an ethicist is the University of Chicago, wrung his hands about the revolutionary technology of joining sperm and egg outside the body.
The mere existence of baby girl, he wrote in a article called into question “the idea of humanness of our human life and the meaning of embodiment, our sexual being and our relations to ancestors and descendants.”
Yet a funny thing happened, or didn’t in the decades that followed: Millions of babies were conceived using IVF. They were born perfectly normal and healthy babies, and they grew to become perfectly healthy and normal adults.
We are now on the brink of another revolution; scientist is now trying to convert adult human cells taken perhaps from cells. A year later, he demonstrated that he could do the same with the human cells.
Unlike most other cells which are coded topper form specific, dedicated tasks, stem cells can develop into any type of cells at all, making them invaluable for the researchers studying human development and the origins of diseases.
Before Yakama’s break through researchers who wanted to work with stem cells had to extract from embryo which are discarded from IVF or from eggs that have been harvested from women and later fertilized, in both cases the embryos were destroyed in the process of isolating the stem cells.
The process was expensive, controversial and subject to intense government oversight in the United States.
After Yakama’s discovery scientist processed a virtually inexhaustible supply of these so called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and all over the world they have since they have been trying to replicate each stage of cellular development, referring recipes that can coax stem cell to become one cell or another.
In 2016 in a paper published in nature, two scientists in Japan, Mitinori Saitou and Katsuyuki Hayashi described how they have turned cells from a mouse tail into iPSCs and from there into eggs.
It was the first time the artificial egg had been made outside the organism’s body, and there was even more extraordinary news. Using the synthetic egg Saitou and Hayashi created eight healthy fertile pups.
But baby mice do not make human cell. Saitou and another scientist Azim Surani are each working directly with human cell, how mice and human iPSCs become primordial germ cells.
In December 2017, Surani announced a crucial milestone concerning the 8-week cell begin the process of transforming into gametes. His lab has successfully nudged the development of stem cells to around week three of that cycle, inching closer to the development of human gametes. Once adult human cells can be made into gametes, editing the stem cells will be relatively easy.
Hayashi guesses that it may take 5 years to produce egg like cells from other cells. With another 10 to 20 years of testing before doctors feel the process to be safe for using in clinic?
According to all research and results studied. I don’t think any of us can say how long. But the progress in rodents was remarkable. In 6 years, we went from nothing to many things.